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An April referendum approved an executive presidency with weakened judicial and parliamentary checks. Over journalists and media workers, as well as 9 parliamentarians of the pro-Kurdish opposition party, are behind bars.


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Judicial decisions are often politicized. Turkey hosts around 3.

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International Travel Information: Learn More. September 19, Press Briefing with Brig. September 12, Department Press Briefing — September 12, August 21, Department Press Briefing — August 21, View all news. Most homes were highly decorated; they were heated by use of hot water flowing through pipes in the floors and walls.

Floor mosaic in a terrace home in Ephesus built on a hill opposite the Temple of Hadrian. View of the port of Kusadasi on the Aegean Sea. The name Kusadasi means "Bird Island. Its current name was officially adopted at the beginning of the 20th century by Turkish authorities.

Kusadasi is the gateway to the Roman ruins at Ephesus. Some 95 km 57 mi south of Izmir, it has grown since the late s from a fishing village into a major tourist center serving thousands of tourists. A statue of Kemal Ataturk, the first president of Turkey and the founder of the Turkish Republic, stands on a hill overlooking the city. View of apartment buildings in the resort town of Kusadasi on the Aegean Sea.

The population of the town increases from 65, to , during the tourist season. Kusadasi is about a minute drive from the Roman ruins at Ephesus.

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Pigeon Island Guvercin Adasi in the harbor of Kusadasi. The island is connected to the mainland by a causeway. The fortress dates from the 14th and 15th centuries. In , the castle was rebuilt and the garrison expanded. The island became the focus of the town to the extent that people began referring to the whole town as Kusadasi Bird Island. The fortress was the center of the town's activities in the late 19th century. Swirls of color ranging from deep olive green to bright turquoise were created by a massive phytoplankton bloom that covered the entire surface of the Black Sea on this image taken 20 June Many of Europe's largest rivers, including the Danube, the Dnister, and the Dnipro Dnieper dump fresh water into the sea.

The sea's only source of salty water is the narrow Bosporus Strait in the southwest , which connects it to the Mediterranean Sea through the Sea of Marmara. Northern Turkey makes up the southern shore of the sea. The diamond-shaped landmass that projects into the sea from the north is Ukraine's Crimean peninsula.

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Photo courtesy of NASA. The Bosporus near the center of the photograph , a strait that connects the Black Sea to the north with the Sea of Marmara to the south, stands out in this low-oblique, north-looking photograph. One of the world's most strategic waterways, the strait separates European Turkey to the west with Asiatic Turkey to the east. Istanbul formerly Constantinople , one of the great historic cities of the world, sits near the Bosporus entrance to the Sea of Marmara. A view of Istanbul as taken from the International Space Station. The metropolis of 15 million occupies both sides of the entrance to the narrow, 32 km- 20 mi- long Bosporus Strait connecting the Mediterranean and Sea of Marmara south, on the right to the Black Sea north, on the left.


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  6. When this image was taken, strong currents carried turbid coastal waters from the Black Sea through the Strait and into the Sea of Marmara. The sinuous waterway and harbor on the western shore are known as the Golden Horn. Image courtesy of NASA. The city of Gallipoli Gelibolu in Turkish; light gray to pink area in center of photo sits at a crossroads between the Sea of Marmara to the right and the Dardanelles Strait which leads to the Aegean Sea. Water in the Strait flows in both northeast and southwest directions due to opposite surface and undercurrents. Several ships are visible in the Strait to the southwest of Gallipoli center left.

    This image includes many of the islands of the East Aegean as well as part of mainland Turkey. The largest modern city in the Aegean coast is Izmir, Turkey, situated about one quarter of the image length from the top. The city is the bright coastal area near the greenish waters of Izmir Bay and southeast of the roughly triangular-shaped island of Lesvos. The lengthy island at the bottom of the photo is Crete. North of Crete, the small broken ring of islands are the remnants of the collapsed caldera of Santorini Volcano. Image source: NASA. This northeast-looking view shows the Ataturk Reservoir and Dam, presently the largest man-made lake in Turkey.

    Located in south central Turkey on the Euphrates River, Ataturk Reservoir was completed in the early 's. The meandering Euphrates River dark line can be seen exiting the scene below the left center of the image. Smooth lake waters appear as dark blue, while wind-roughened waters appear light blue. The light area to the west of the dam left center is where rocks were quarried for the construction of the dam. A southwest-looking photograph of south-central Turkey and northwest Syria. The Plain of Adana, an extensive agricultural region, is located northwest of the Gulf of Iskenderun the roughly rectangular-shaped gulf near the center of the photo and is irrigated by the Seyhan River.

    Adana, the largest city in the region, can be seen midway between the Gulf and the Taurus Mountains to the west. The island of Cyprus can be seen off the Turkish and Syrian coasts. Mount Ararat 5, m, 16, ft is the largest volcano in Turkey, but is not currently active. It is located in extreme northeastern Turkey, near the borders with Iran and Armenia. Southwest of the main peak lies Lesser Ararat 3, m, 12, ft. Ahora Gorge is a northeast-trending chasm dropping from the top of the mountain. Claims by different explorers to have found remnants of Noah's Ark on Mount Ararat have led to continuing expeditions to the mountain, many focusing their searches on the gorge area.

    A view of Mount Ararat in eastern Turkey through the fog. The highest of its two peaks, Greater Ararat, is the tallest mountain in Turkey at 5, m 16, ft. Although located some 32 km 20 mi from the Armenian border, the dormant volcano dominates the skyline of Yerevan, Armenia's capital.

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