The New York Review of Books (Volume 63 Issue 4, March 10)

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Clarke Award and the Rumble Museum have announced a new short story competition, open to residents of the UK, age 15 or younger.

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Read More. It is always a pleasure to review books that, at the Well, much anticipated in my circles and, I have to say, the novel lives up to its buzz. Claire North has made something of a career of taking weatherbeaten tropes reincarnation in The First Fifteen Lives of Harry August , invisibility in The Sudden Appearance of Hope , Death personified in The End of the Day and reimagining them in a stylish contemporary voice, usually with a witty twist on the original conceit. In The Upon a Burning Throne , Ashok K.

Ashok K. Banker returns to America with little to prove.

He has already published dozens of books in India, including a great deal of epic fantasy. Whether the series will do as well here The early 21st century of an alternate Earth becomes infected by magic, a plague which kills most but leaves the survivors with powers. The most powerful witching, Calix Publishing the text without permission would The letter reads, in part:.

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Galaxy Press April Abbott, to whose Flatland Rucker paid a kind of parodic tribute Winners were announced September Twelve-year-old Sal, a clever aspiring stage magician, has The novel was based on a plot by editor Raymond A. Daunt says,. This is a very good day for bookselling. Opposite of Always , Justin A.

It is not a spoiler to state that Opposite of Always is a novel about time travel; specifically, the story of Jack traveling back over the same period of months again and again and again and again to save the life of his girlfriend, Kate. His story will also be translated into Italian and published September 16, locusmag 0. September 9, locusmag 0.

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September 2, locusmag August 19, locusmag 0. September 23, locusmag 0. September 22, locusmag 0. September 21, locusmag 0. September 20, locusmag 0. In response, Alexander Hamilton decided to launch a measured defense and extensive explanation of the proposed Constitution to the people of the state of New York. He wrote in Federalist No.

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Hamilton recruited collaborators for the project. He enlisted John Jay, who after four strong essays Federalist Nos. Gouverneur Morris and William Duer were also considered. However, Morris turned down the invitation, and Hamilton rejected three essays written by Duer. Alexander Hamilton chose the pseudonymous name "Publius".

While many other pieces representing both sides of the constitutional debate were written under Roman names, historian Albert Furtwangler contends that " 'Publius' was a cut above ' Caesar ' or ' Brutus ' or even ' Cato '. Publius Valerius helped found the ancient republic of Rome.

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His more famous name, Publicola, meant 'friend of the people'. At the time of publication, the authors of The Federalist Papers attempted to hide their identities due to Hamilton and Madison having attended the convention. Establishing authorial authenticity of the essays that comprise The Federalist Papers has not always been clear. After Alexander Hamilton died in , a list emerged, claiming that he alone had written two-thirds of The Federalist essays. Some believe that several of these essays were written by James Madison Nos.

The scholarly detective work of Douglass Adair in postulated the following assignments of authorship, corroborated in by a computer analysis of the text: [12]. In six months, a total of 85 articles were written by the three men. Hamilton, who had been a leading advocate of national constitutional reform throughout the s and was one of the three representatives for New York at the Constitutional Convention , in became the first Secretary of the Treasury , a post he held until his resignation in Madison, who is now acknowledged as the father of the Constitution—despite his repeated rejection of this honor during his lifetime, [14] became a leading member of the U.

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House of Representatives from Virginia — , Secretary of State — , and ultimately the fourth President of the United States Although written and published with haste, The Federalist articles were widely read and greatly influenced the shape of American political institutions. At times, three to four new essays by Publius appeared in the papers in a single week. Garry Wills observes that this fast pace of production "overwhelmed" any possible response: "Who, given ample time could have answered such a battery of arguments?

And no time was given. However, they were only irregularly published outside New York, and in other parts of the country they were often overshadowed by local writers. Because the essays were initially published in New York, most of them begin with the same salutation : "To the People of the State of New York". The high demand for the essays led to their publication in a more permanent form.

On January 1, , the New York publishing firm J. McLean announced that they would publish the first thirty-six essays as a bound volume; that volume was released on March 22, , and was titled The Federalist Volume 1. A second bound volume was released on May 28, containing Federalist Nos.

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A French edition ended the collective anonymity of Publius, announcing that the work had been written by "Mm. Hopkins wished as well that "the name of the writer should be prefixed to each number," but at this point Hamilton insisted that this was not to be, and the division of the essays among the three authors remained a secret. The first publication to divide the papers in such a way was an edition that used a list left by Hamilton to associate the authors with their numbers; this edition appeared as two volumes of the compiled "Works of Hamilton".

In , Jacob Gideon published a new edition with a new listing of authors, based on a list provided by Madison. The difference between Hamilton's list and Madison's formed the basis for a dispute over the authorship of a dozen of the essays.


Both Hopkins's and Gideon's editions incorporated significant edits to the text of the papers themselves, generally with the approval of the authors. In , Henry Dawson published an edition containing the original text of the papers, arguing that they should be preserved as they were written in that particular historical moment, not as edited by the authors years later. Modern scholars generally use the text prepared by Jacob E.

Cooke for his edition of The Federalist ; this edition used the newspaper texts for essay numbers 1—76 and the McLean edition for essay numbers 77— The authorship of seventy-three of The Federalist essays is fairly certain. Twelve of these essays are disputed over by some scholars, though the modern consensus is that Madison wrote essays Nos. The first open designation of which essay belonged to whom was provided by Hamilton who, in the days before his ultimately fatal gun duel with Aaron Burr , provided his lawyer with a list detailing the author of each number.

This list credited Hamilton with a full sixty-three of the essays three of those being jointly written with Madison , almost three-quarters of the whole, and was used as the basis for an printing that was the first to make specific attribution for the essays. Madison did not immediately dispute Hamilton's list, but provided his own list for the Gideon edition of The Federalist.

Madison claimed twenty-nine numbers for himself, and he suggested that the difference between the two lists was "owing doubtless to the hurry in which [Hamilton's] memorandum was made out. Statistical analysis has been undertaken on several occasions in attempts to accurately identify the author of each individual essay. After examining word choice and writing style, studies generally agree that the disputed essays were written by James Madison.

However, there are notable exceptions maintaining that some of the essays which are now widely attributed to Madison were, in fact, collaborative efforts. The Federalist Papers were written to support the ratification of the Constitution, specifically in New York. Whether they succeeded in this mission is questionable.

Separate ratification proceedings took place in each state, and the essays were not reliably reprinted outside of New York; furthermore, by the time the series was well underway, a number of important states had already ratified it, for instance Pennsylvania on December New York held out until July 26; certainly The Federalist was more important there than anywhere else, but Furtwangler argues that it "could hardly rival other major forces in the ratification contests"—specifically, these forces included the personal influence of well-known Federalists, for instance Hamilton and Jay, and Anti-Federalists, including Governor George Clinton.

In light of that, Furtwangler observes, "New York's refusal would make that state an odd outsider. Only 19 Federalists were elected to New York's ratification convention, compared to the Anti-Federalists' 46 delegates. While New York did indeed ratify the Constitution on July 26, the lack of public support for pro-Constitution Federalists has led historian John Kaminski to suggest that the impact of The Federalist on New York citizens was "negligible".

As for Virginia, which only ratified the Constitution at its convention on June 25, Hamilton writes in a letter to Madison that the collected edition of The Federalist had been sent to Virginia; Furtwangler presumes that it was to act as a "debater's handbook for the convention there", though he claims that this indirect influence would be a "dubious distinction". Furtwangler notes that as the series grew, this plan was somewhat changed. The fourth topic expanded into detailed coverage of the individual articles of the Constitution and the institutions it mandated, while the two last topics were merely touched on in the last essay.