Aquaculture and fisheries biotechnology : genetic approaches

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Aquaculture and Fisheries Biotechnology - Genetic Approaches.

Terry Beacham & Yniv Palti - The genetics of aquaculture: Genotyping with GBS and arrays for species

Be the first to review this product Email to a Friend. Details About The Book The growth of worldwide aquaculture has been sustained and rapid, and the explosion of research in genetic biotechnology has made significant impact on aquaculture and fisheries, although potential for much greater progress exists.

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Aquaculture and Fisheries Biotechnology: Genetic Approaches covers topics essential to the study of fish genetics, including qualitative and quantitative traits, crossbreeding, inbreeding, genetic drift, hybridization, selection programs, polyploidy, genomics and cloning. This fully updated second edition also addresses environmental risk, food safety and government regulation of transgenic aquatic organisms, commercial applications of fish biotechnology and future issues in fish genetics.

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World Aquaculture Society. Aquaculture and Fisheries Biotechnology - Genetic Approaches

Embeds 0 No embeds. No notes for slide. Aquaculture and fisheries biotechnology genetic approaches 1. Aquaculture and Fisheries Biotechnology Genetic Approaches 2. Dunham All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means, electronically, mechanically, by photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the copyright owners.

Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN alk. Fishes--Molecular genetics. D86 There are several reasons for this. If applied properly, aquaculture has the potential to relieve pressure on natural populations and have positive environmental effects. Natural populations are the ultimate gene bank for future aquaculture application and should be vigorously protected.

Aquaculture and Fisheries Biotechnology - Genetic Approaches

The concepts in the book are illustrated with numerous research examples and results in an effort to teach, relate theory with reality and provide a strong review of the current status of these biotechnological topics. Early in the book phenotypic variation and environmental effects are addressed.

Sometimes we become lost within the nucleus, and temporarily lose sight of the fact that the environment can overshadow genetic effects. Therefore, whether it be traditional selective breeding or biotechnology, we must be aware of these environmental effects and how to con- trol them to generate realistic genetic information and maximize its useful application. The latter part of the book focuses on various aspects of transgenic biotechnology.

Obviously, at present, this topic can be highly emotionally charged. Data are often not yet available to support the views of those who are strong proponents or opponents of transgenic biotechnology.

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The chapters on government regulation of biotechnology are based heavily on the work and publications of Eric Hallerman and Devin Bartley. I thank Meryl Williams, Peter Gardiner, John Jensen and Richard Guthrie for giving me the opportunity to develop an appreciation for the developing-country perspective on biotechnology.

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I would like to thank Norman Maclean for reviewing this book. Dunham 1 Aquaculture is an ancient form of farming dating back years or more in China and the Roman Empire Balon, ; Dunham et al. However, only in the last few decades has aquaculture grown into a global practice resulting in tremendous worldwide production.

Genetic variation is one key variable in the survival of various species. Hardy predicts a 55 million t shortage in demanded seafood products by resulting from levelled wild catch and increasing demand. Major improvements have been achieved through enhanced husbandry procedures, improved nutrition, enhanced disease diagnosis and therapies and the application of genetics to production traits.

Although several aquaculture species have been greatly improved through the applica- tion of genetics, much greater improvements can be accomplished Dunham et al. Aquaculture genetics actually had its origin with the beginning of aquaculture in China and the Roman Empire more than years ago. Closely related species are reproductively iso- lated and have species status because of their genetic distance from one another; therefore, the comparison of different species is a genetic comparison Dunham et al.

Shortly thereafter, in , Anton van Leeuwenhoek discovered that semen contained spermatozoa and theorized that they could fertilize eggs, although this was not substantiated for another years. A series of discoveries during the years that followed have led to the current state of biotechnology and molecular genetics. The foundation for electrophoretic analy- sis was laid in when R. Buffon and Lamarck believed that the external envi- ronment brought about change, but Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire felt change was embryonic or germinal. Shortly thereafter, in , Friedrich Miescher discovered deoxyribonucleic acid DNA , although the full implications of this discovery were obviously not completely understood.

Eduard and Benden s found that the nematode zygote received half its chromosomes from each parent, and in Flemming described the process and named it mitosis. In , F. Galton laid the mathematical foundations for the study of quantitative vari- ation and quantitative genetics. Then, in the early s, W.

Johannsen, H. Nilsson-Ehle, E. East and R. Sex chromosomes were discovered by C. McClung, E. Wilson and Nettie Stevens between and Avers, In —, Walter S. Correns, William Bateson and R. Garrod in Also that year, G. Hardy and W. Weinberg independently developed some of the basic laws governing population genet- ics Goodenough and Levine, Thomas Hunt Morgan and Calvin Bridges provided experimental proof of the chromosome the- ory in Early in the 20th cen- tury, Thomas Hunt Morgan and his student Alfred Sturtevant described single and multi- factorial inheritance, chromosome mapping, gene linkage and recombination, sex linkage, mutagenesis and chromosome aberrations.

Sturtevant described linear linkage in These efforts were primarily led by R.

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Fisher and Sewell Wright. Much of the research was related to selection, inbreeding and relatedness of individuals and popula- tions, and also application and relevance to quantitative genetics and selective breeding. George Beadle and Edward Tatum advanced the hypothesis of one gene—one enzyme in and Avery, McCarty and MacLeod indicated that DNA was the physi- cal material for heredity, bringing together Mendelian genetics, biochemistry and cyto- genetics for the beginning of molecular History of Genetic Biotechnology in Aquaculture 3 Khorana and others deciphered the genetic code, and then Charles Yanofsky and Alan Garen followed with genetic evidence for the code Goodenough and Levine, ; Avers, Isozyme analysis was also developed in the s.

Hunter developed histo- chemical staining Hunter and Markert, for the visualization of enzymes and isozymes Richardson et al.